# BCA 2nd Semester

#### BCA 2.1- ENGLISH

Course content                   Teaching of Prose, Poetry & Grammar
Text books prescribed    Patterns of Contemporary Prose by Sujatha S.(Foundation)
Lessons prescribed           6, 7, 8, 9 & 10 Distant Notes by D BOS Reddy & DT Angadi (NAP)
Poems prescribed             6, 7, 8, 9 & 10
Language Component     English Grammar

• Imperative, Assertive, Interrogative, Exclamatory
• Simple, Complex and Compound
• Time and Tense
• Transformation of Sentences

Ref. Books: Modern English Grammar and Usage by N Krishnaswamy Active English Grammar (McMillan)

#### BCA 2.2 – HINDI

PS – 2   Communication Skills
PS – 3   Translation

#### BCA 2.3 – EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

As in paper 2.3 ‘Extra Curricular Activities (ECA)’ of B.Sc. IInd Semester

#### BCA 2.4 – FOUNDATION COURSE IN MATHEMATICS FOR COMPUTING – II

Unit 1 Sets and Functions:

Definition of sets, countable and uncountable sets, power set of a set, product of two sets, equivalent relations,
partitions of sets, equivalence classes, definition of a function, domain, codo main and the range of a function, injective, subjective and bijective functions, composition of functions, invertible functions and the inverse of a function, recursively defined functions.

Theorem proving Techniques: Mathematical induction (simple and strong), pigeonhole principle, prove by contradiction.

Unit 2 Posets, Hasse Diagram and Lattices: Introduction, ordered set, Hasse diagram of partially ordered set, isomorphic ordered set,
well-ordered set, properties of Lattices, bounded and complemented lattices.

Boolean Algebra: Basic definitions, a sum of products and product of sums forms in Boolean Algebra, Logic gates and Karnaugh maps.

Unit 3 Propositional Logic: Proposition, First order logic, Basic logical operations, truth tables, tautologies, Contradictions, Algebra of Proposition,
logical implications, logical equivalence, predicates, Universal and existential quantifiers.

Algebraic Structures: Definition, properties, types: Semi Groups, Monoid, Groups, Abelian group, properties of groups, Subgroup, cyclic groups,
Cosets, factor group, Permutation groups, Normal subgroup.

Unit 4 Combinatorics & Graphs: Recurrence Relation, Generating function, Simple graph, multigraph, graph terminology, representation of graphs,
Bipartite, Regular, Planar and connected graphs, connected components in a graph, Euler graphs, Hamiltonian path and circuits, Graph coloring, chromatic
number, isomorphism, and Homomorphism of graphs.

Tree: Definition, Rooted tree, properties of trees, binary search tree, tree traversal.

Unit 5 Geometry and Vectors: Definition of a scalar, vector, dot product, cross product etc. Scalar and vector point functions, derivative of a vector,
Applications: Differentiation of scalar and vector point functions, Gradient of a scalar point function, Divergence and Curl of Vector, an expression for orthogonal
curvilinear coordinates. Line Integral, Surface Integral, Gauss Theorem, Stokes theorem, Scalar and Vector potentials (Theorems without proof).

Analytic Geometry of straight lines and conics in Cartesian and Polar coordinates, three-dimensional geometry for planes, straight lines, sphere, cone, and cylinder.
Addition, Subtraction, and Products of Vectors and Simple applications to Geometry.

References: R. Desai, Engineering Mathematics – II, Elite Publishers.
K. Das, Engineering Mathematics, S. Chand & Co.
Deepak Chatterji, Vector Analysis, PHI.
Lipschutz, Seymour, Discrete Mathematical Structure with Application to Computer Science, McGraw-Hill.
Trembley, J. P & R. Manohar, Discrete Mathematical Structure with Application to Computer Science, McGraw-Hill.
Deo, Narsingh, Graph Theory with application to Engineering and Computer Science, PHI.
Kolman Busby and Ros, Discrete Mathematical Structures, Pearson Education.
Ralph P. Grimaldi, Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics, Pearson Education.

#### BCA 2.5 – DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

Unit 1 Number Systems: Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal-Number base conversions, complements, signed Binary numbers.
Binary Arithmetic- Binary codes: Weighted – BCD-2421-Gray code-Excess 3 code- ASCII, Error detecting code, conversion from
one code to another, Boolean postulates and laws, De-Morgan’s Theorem, Principle of Duality, Boolean expression, Boolean function-
Minimization of Boolean expressions, Sum of Products (SOP), Product of Sums (POS), Minterm, Maxterm, Canonical forms, Conversion
between canonical forms, Karnaugh map Minimization, Don’t care conditions.

Unit 2 Logic Gates: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR, Implementations of Logic Functions using
gates, NAND – NOR implementation, Multi-level gate implementations, Multi-output gate implementations, TTL and CMOS Logic and
their characteristics.

Implementation of combinational logic using MUX, ROM, PAL and PLA.

Unit 4 Sequential Circuit: Flip flops SR, JK, T, D and Master-slave – Characteristic table and equation – Application table – Edge triggering –
Level Triggering – Realization of one flip-flop using other flip flops – Asynchronous/Ripple counters – Synchronous counters – Modulo – n counter –
Classification of sequential circuits – Moore and Mealy – Design of Synchronous counters: state diagram- State table – State assignment- ASM-
Excitation table and maps-Circuit implementation-Register – shift registers- Universal shift register – Shift counters – Ring counters.

Unit 5 Asynchronous Sequential Circuits: Design of fundamental mode and pulse mode circuits, primitive state/flow table, Minimization of
primitive state table, state assignment, Excitation table, Excitation map, cycles, Races – Hazards: Static – Dynamic – Essential – Hazards elimination.

Memory Devices: Classification of memories, RAM organization, write operation, read operation, memory cycle, timing waveforms, memory
decoding, memory expansion, Static RAM Cell-Bipolar RAM cell, MOSFET RAM cell, Dynamic RAM cell, ROM organization, PROM, EPROM,
EEPROM, EAPROM, Programmable Logic Devices, Programmable Logic Array (PLA), Programmable Array Logic (PAL), Programmable Array
Logic (PAL), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).

References: Morris Mano, Digital Design, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., Pearson Education.
John. M Yarbrough, Digital Logic Applications, and Design, Thomson Learning.
Raj Kamal, Digital systems-Principles, and Design, Pearson education.
Digital Electronics: An Introduction to Theory and Practice- William H. Gothman, Prentice Hall of India.
Donald P. Leach and Albert Paul Malvino, Digital Principles and Applications, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited.
Thomas L. Floyd, Digital Fundamentals, Pearson Education.

#### BCA 2.6 – DATA STRUCTURES USING C

Unit 1 Introduction: Abstract data types: fundamentals and derived data types, representation, primitive data structures. An algorithm, pseudo code
for expressing algorithms, time complexity and space complexity, O-notation, Omega notation and theta notation, sequential, binary search, indexed
sequential search algorithms.

Unit 2 Linear Data Structures-Arrays: Representation of arrays: single and multidimensional arrays, address calculation using column and row
major ordering, operations on arrays, application of arrays: Matrix multiplication, Sparse polynomial representation, and addition.

Unit 3 Linear Data Structures – Lists: Singly linked list; operations on a list, polynomial representation and manipulation using linked lists, circular
linked lists, doubly linked lists. Sparse Matrix representation, representation of stacks and queues using arrays and linked list. Circular queues, priority
queue, and d-queue. applications of stacks; Conversion from infix to postfix and prefix expressions, Evaluation of postfix expression using stacks.

Unit 4 Nonlinear Data Structures-Trees and Graphs: Binary tree traversal methods: Preorder, In-order, Post-ordered traversal. Recursive and
non-recursive Algorithms for traversal methods, representation of trees and its applications, threaded binary trees, Binary search tree, Height balanced
(AVL) tree, B-trees.

spanning tree: Definition, Minimal spanning tree algorithms, Shortest Path algorithms (Prime’s and Kruskal’s).

Unit 5 Sorting: Insertion sort, shell sort, heap sort, merge sort, quick sort, indirect sorting, bucket sorting, and efficiency of sorting algorithms.

References: Langsam Yedidyah, Augenstein Moshe J., Tenenbaum Aaron M.
Data Structures Using C and C++, PHI/Pearson Education.
F. Gilberg and B. A. Forouzan, Data Structures-A Pseudocode Approach with C, Thomson Learning.
Trembley, J.P. And Sorenson P.G., An Introduction To Data Structures With Applications, McGraw-Hill International Student Edition.
Samanta. D., Classic Data Structures, PHI.

#### BCA 2.7 – PROGRAMMING LABORATORY – II

Part I: Lab. An assignment shall be carried out based on the paper BCA 2.5 including the following:
• TTL Characteristics
• TTL IC Gates
• Flip-Flops
• Counters
• Shift Registers
• Multiplexers
• Decoders